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Philadelphia Architecture

The buildings and architecture of Philadelphia are a mix of historic and modern styles that reflect the city's history. The first European settlements appeared within the present day borders of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the 17th century with most structures being built from logs. By the 18th century brick structures had become common. Georgian and later Federal style buildings dominated much of the cityscape. In the first half of the 19th century Greek revival appeared and flourished with architects such as William Strickland, John Haviland, and Thomas U. Walter. In the second half of the 19th century Victorian architecture became popular with the city's most notable Victorian architect being Frank Furness.

Steel and concrete skyscrapers appeared in the first decades of the 20th century and glass and granite skyscrapers towards the end of the century. Construction continued into the 21st century with the city tallest building, the Comcast Center. Philadelphia made significant contributions in the architecture of the United States. The row house was introduced to the United States via Philadelphia in the 19th century, the United States' first International style skyscraper was built in Philadelphia, and one of the most important examples of Postmodern architecture, Robert Venturi's Guild House, is located in the city.

17th and 18th Centuries

The earliest houses in Philadelphia were built with logs, with the new English settlers being taught by the Swedish settlers already living in the area. Early inhabitants had also dug out caves on the Delaware riverbank which were reportedly places of "clandestine looseness". The Philadelphia settlers soon began constructing buildings with wood and brick with the first brick house being built in 1684. By 1690 four brickmakers and ten bricklayers were working in the city. In 1698 construction of the Old Swedes' (Gloria Dei) Church, the oldest surviving building in Philadelphia, began. Construction of the church was completed in 1700. Philadelphia was founded by Quakers and as a result many early buildings were plain and simple, the largest building being the Great Meeting House.[1]

Buildings soon became more elaborate and in 1724 the Carpenters' Company of the City and County of Philadelphia was formed to help instruct builders. As in London, Georgian architecture soon became the popular design in Philadelphia. In 1730 statesman and businessman James Logan was one of the first in Philadelphia to build a country home outside the city. The mansion, which he called Stenton, was the first Queen Anne-style building in the Delaware Valley.[2] One of the most ambitious Palladian structures of the time was the Christ Church. Christ Church was completed in 1744 with a steeple added in 1754. Starting in the 1730s construction began on the Pennsylvania State House. The Georgian style State House, now known as Independence Hall, was designed by Andrew Hamilton with construction supervised by Edmund Woolley.[3]

The change away from the traditional red brick Georgian style began with the construction of Library Hall in 1790. Library Hall was the first building designed by William Thornton. The Palladian Library Hall was designed similar to the Robert Adam style popular in England at the time with four pilasters and an ornamental balustrade. The similar Federal style also became popular with one of the city's best examples being David Evans, Jr.'s Central Pavilion of the Pennsylvania Hospital completed in 1805. Around the same time Classicism became popular with the creation of the Woodlands estate in 1788 and the First Presbyterian Church in 1793.[4]

19th Century

At the beginning of the 19th century the row house was introduced to Philadelphia. William Sansom had bought a block of land between Seventh and Eighth Streets between Walnut Street and Sansom Street. Along Walnut Street Sansom built Union Row and along Sansom Street Thomas Carstairs built Carstairs Row. The rows, now part of Jewelers' Row, were block long rows of houses similar to row houses in the United Kingdom. The row houses were new to the United States as well and when built elsewhere in the country were called "Philadelphia rows".[5] In the 1820s and 30s old buildings along the Delaware River were turned into tenements and factories, while houses a few blocks west were turned into stores. Several story high, brick row house continued to be built, many by Stephen Girard. At the same time granite fronts became popular in the city and marble mansions were constructed.[6]

Greek Revival began in the United States with Benjamin Latrobe's Bank of Pennsylvania Building in 1801. The building was made of white marble with Greek Ionic temple porticos on two sides of the building, and was topped with a low dome. Latrobe left Philadelphia to design the United States Capitol, but others continued with the style. Robert Mills designed Octagon Unitarian Church in 1813 and a 6,000 seat auditorium called Washington Hall in 1816. However, all of Mills' Philadelphia buildings have since been demolished. William Strickland's first major commission was the Second Bank of the United States. One critic said the Second Bank "excels in elegance and equals in utility, the edifice, not only of the Bank of England, but of any banking house in the world."[7] Among Strickland's other buildings were the Naval Asylum completed in 1824, the Arch Street Theater built in 1828, the Mechanics National Bank and the Merchant's Exchange completed in 1834. John Haviland's first major building was the Philadelphia Arcade. Built in 1827, Haviland based the design of Arcade on the Burlington Arcade in London. In 1829 Haviland's Eastern State Penitentiary was completed. Other buildings include the former Franklin Institute (now the Atwater Kent Museum) and the Walnut Street Theater, along with St. George's Episcopal Church and the Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, now the University of the Art's Hamilton Hall. Another significant architect was Thomas U. Walter. Walter's most significant Philadelphia building is Girard College which was completed in 1847. Along with numerous churches, Walter also built the now demolished Gothic Philadelphia County Prison and the Egyptian-style debtor's prison in Moyamensing.[8]

In the 1840s and 50s many old buildings were replaced by larger business structures. Built from red sandstone, granite, and iron, the buildings varied in designs including Greek Revival, Gothic, and Italianate. One of the tallest buildings was the eight-story Jayne Building. Designed by William L. Johnston, the building had a Venetian Gothic façade and an observation tower designed by Thomas Walter. The Jayne Building was completed in 1850 and demolished in 1957. The city's first entirely cast-iron building was built in 1850. Built for Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company, the building was designed by G. P. Cummings.[9]

Victorian architecture became popular in the second half of the 19th century. Philadelphia's most prominent Victorian architect was Frank Furness. Furness designed numerous buildings including the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Broad Street Station, the Fisher Fine Arts Library of the University of Pennsylvania, the Knowlton Mansion, and the First Unitarian Church.[10] The Centennial Exposition was held in Philadelphia in 1876. Over 200 buildings were constructed for the Exposition including the Main Exhibition Building which was the largest building in the world at the time. Most buildings of the Exposition, including the Main Exhibition Building, were temporary. Two significant exceptions were Horticultural Hall and Memorial Hall, both designed by Hermann J. Schwarzmann. The now demolished Horticultural Hall was a glass and iron structure styled after Moorish architecture and a tribute to London's Crystal Palace.[11][12] The Beaux-Arts Memorial Hall was made of brick, glass, iron and granite.[13] Designed by John McArthur Jr., Philadelphia City Hall began construction in 1871 and wasn't completed until 1901. City Hall is a square building surrounding a central courtyard. Each side has an arched walkway leading inside and the north side includes a 548 ft clock tower. Designed in Second Empire style and influenced by the Tuileries Palace and the Louvre, City Hall is the largest all-masonry, load bearing structure without a steel frame.[14]

20th Century

Numerous steel and concrete skyscrapers were constructed in the first two decades of the 20th century. In the 1920s construction continued with skyscrapers such as the Aldine Trust Building, the Lewis Tower, the Drake, the Ben Franklin House and the Rittenhouse Plaza. In the early 1930s 30th Street Station, Convention Hall, and the Franklin Institute were constructed. In 1932 the United States' first International style skyscraper was built. The PSFS Building, which was designed by George Howe and William Lescaze, was topped with the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society's initials in 27 ft red neon letters and is decorated with custom made interior detailing.[15]

Numerous houses, many of them row homes, were in poor condition. In a 1934 United States Department of Commerce survey of 433,796 houses found that eight in every thousand homes lacked water, about 3,000 homes lacked heating, and that 7,000 homes were unfit for habitation. By 1939 conditions had only improved slightly. One development was the low cost housing development named the Carl Mackley Apartments. Constructed between 1933 and 1934, the apartments were commissioned by the American Federation of Hosiery Workers and designed by Oskar Stonorov. The way the apartments were laid out, with gardens, lawns, play areas, underground garages, and space for public art were new architectural designs at the time.[16]

After World War II new development projects appeared all around Philadelphia. In Center City modern office buildings were constructed including the Penn Center, and the Municipal Services Building. Around Independence National Historical Park a new U.S. Mint building, a new federal courthouse, and the Rohm and Haas Building were built. Just east of Chinatown the circular Police Administration Building was built. Historic buildings were renovated and neighborhoods underwent urban renewal. One of the earliest was Society Hill where many old buildings were rehabilitated and I. M. Pei's Society Hill Towers were built.[17] Outside the revitalized neighborhoods blight, vacancies and vacant lots remained a problem. In 1990 Philadelphia had around 40,000 vacant properties and by 2006 that number had dropped to around 20,000.[18]

While Philadelphia neighborhoods changed architecture continued to evolve as well. Architect Louis Kahn, grew up, studied and worked in Philadelphia and is considered one of the most important architects of the second half of the 20th century. In Philadelphia Kahn's designs includes the University of Philadelphia's Richards Medical Center and Esherick House in Chestnut Hill.[19][20] In 1964 one of Robert Venturi earliest works, the Guild House, was built. The Guild House is considered one of the most important examples of post-modernism.[21]

In the late 1980s and early 1990s large glass and granite skyscrapers were built in Center City. The largest skyscraper was Liberty Place. Consisting of the 945 ft (288 m) One Liberty Place, the 848 ft (258 m) Two Liberty Place and a smaller hotel, Liberty Place were among the first buildings taller than City Hall. Before construction began, the Philadelphia City Council had given permission for buildings to be taller than City Hall to encourage skyscraper development along Market Street. Liberty Place was designed by Helmut John who combined historical architecture style with post-modern style. In the case of Liberty Place John was influenced by the art deco Chrysler Building.[22] According to the curse of Billy Penn, which appeared sometime after Liberty Place was constructed, no Philadelphia sports team will win a championship as long as there is a building taller than the statue of William Penn on top of City Hall.[23]

21st Century

Tax breaks created in 1997 and 2000 helped create a condominium boom in Center City. In the first years of the 21st century old buildings rehabilitated into condominiums and new luxury condominium towers appeared all around Center City and the surrounding neighborhoods.[24] New office towers also appeared, the most notable being the Comcast Center which became the tallest building in Philadelphia in 2007 and is expected to be completed in 2008.[23] More skyscrapers, mostly condominiums, are under construction or in-planning such as the Murano, Waterfront Square, and Mandeville Place.

References

^ Weigley RF et al (eds) (1982). Philadelphia: A 300-Year History. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, pages 11 -12. ISBN 0-393-01610-2.
^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, page 41
^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 50 - 53
^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 171 - 176
^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, page 251
^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, page 281
^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 252 - 253
^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 282 - 285
^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, page 312
^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, page 506
^ Gross, Linda P.; Theresa R. Snyder (2005). Philadelphia's 1876 Centennial Exhibition. Arcadia Publishing, page 95. ISBN 0-7385-3888-4.
^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, page 464
^ Philadelphia's 1876 Centennial Exhibition, pages 101 - 102
^ City Hall History. City Hall Virtual Tours. City of Philadelphia. Retrieved on July 16, 2007.
^ Dupré, Judith (1996). Skyscrapers. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, Inc., page 41. ISBN 1-884822-45-2.
^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 613 - 615
^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History, pages 699 - 701
^ Nelson Jones, Diana (November 06 2006). "'Green' forum targets blighted vacant lots" (subscription required). Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
^ Cooperman, Emily T.. Kahn, Louis Isadore (1901-1974). Philadelphia Architects and Buildings. Retrieved on July 16, 2007.
^ Conn, Steve (December 13 - 20, 2001). "The Worth of Kahn". Philadelphia City Paper.
^ Gallery, John Andrew (May 13 - 19, 2004). "Guilding Philly". Philadelphia City Paper.
^ Terranova, Antonino (2003). Skyscrapers. Vercelli, Italy: White Star S.r.l., pages 153 - 154. ISBN 0-7607-4733-4.
^ a b Holcomb, Henry J. (June 18 2007). "Comcast Center topped off". The Philadelphia Inquirer.
^ Chamberlain, Lisa (January 8, 2006). "Tax Breaks Drive a Philadelphia Boom". The New York Times.
^ Cooperman, Emily T.. Philly's 50 tallest buildings. phillyskyline.com. Retrieved on July 16, 2007.
^ Comcast Center. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.

Source of Article:

Wikipedia. (2008). Buildings and Architecture of Philadelphia. Retrieved May 31, 2008 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buildings_and_architecture_of_Philadelphia

List of Tallest Buildings in Philadelphia

This list of tallest buildings in Philadelphia ranks skyscrapers in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by height. The tallest building in the city is currently the 57-story Comcast Center, which rises 975 feet (297 meters).[1] Comcast Center is currently the 14th tallest building in the United States. It was topped out on June 18, 2007, thereby becoming the tallest building in the city and the state.[2] Another famous Philadelphia skyscraper is One Liberty Place, which is the city's 2nd-tallest building and the 17th-tallest building in the country.[3] Five of the ten tallest buildings in Pennsylvania are in Philadelphia.

Philadelphia's history of tall buildings is generally thought to begin with the 1744 completion of Christ Church, which served as one of America's first high-rise structures.[4] In the early 20th century, a 'gentlemen's agreement' existed that prevented buildings from rising higher than the 548-foot (167 m) Philadelphia City Hall.[5] Despite this agreement, Philadelphia amassed a large collection of high-rise buildings. The completion of One Liberty Place in 1987 broke the gentleman's agreement,[5] and since then Philadelphia has seen the construction of seven skyscrapers that eclipse the City Hall in height.

Philadelphia has twice held the tallest habitable building in the United States, first with Christ Church and then with City Hall. Philadelphia City Hall reigned as the world's tallest building from 1901 to 1908,[6] and remains the world's tallest masonry building.[7] Like other large American cities, Philadelphia went through a massive building boom in the 1970s and 1980s, resulting in the completion of over 20 high-rise buildings. The city is the site of 10 skyscrapers at least 500 feet (152 m) tall. Overall, Philadelphia's skyline is ranked (based on existing and under-construction buildings over 500 feet (152 m) tall) third in the Northeast (after New York City and Boston) and 12th in the United States, after New York, Chicago, Miami, Houston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Dallas, Atlanta, Boston, Las Vegas and Seattle.[A]

Tallest Buildings

This lists ranks Philadelphia skyscrapers that stand at least 400 feet (122 meters) tall, based on standard height measurement.[8] This includes spires and architectural details but does not include antenna masts. Existing structures are included for ranking purposes based on present height. The only demolished building that would have ranked on this list was the 492 ft (150 m) One Meridian Plaza, which was razed in 1999.[9]

Rank/ Name/ Height (feet / m)/ Floors/ Year/ Notes

1 Comcast Center* 975 / 297 57 2007 Under Construction - this building was topped out in June 2007, becoming the tallest building in Philadelphia and Pennsylvania. It is currently the 14th-tallest building in the United States and the 42nd-tallest in the world.[10][1]
2 One Liberty Place 945 / 288 61 1987 Tallest completed skyscraper in the city and state. Currently the 18th-tallest building in the country and the 50th-tallest in the world. Tallest building completed in Philadelphia in the 1980s.[3][11][12]
3 Two Liberty Place 848 / 258 58 1990 Currently the 33rd-tallest building in the country and 103rd-tallest in the world. Tallest building completed in Philadelphia in the 1990s.[13][14][15]
4 Mellon Bank Center 792 / 241 54 1990 Currently the 44th-tallest building in the country and the 157th-tallest in the world. Also known as Nine Penn Center.[16][17][18]
5 Bell Atlantic Tower 739 / 225 55 1991 Currently the 80th-tallest building in the country. Also known as Verizon Tower.[19][20][21]
6 G. Fred DiBona Jr. Building 625 / 191 45 1990 Formerly known as the Blue Cross-Blue Shield Tower and the IBX Tower.[22][23][24]
7= One Commerce Square 565 / 172 41 1992 Last of the first boom of "Trophy Towers" constructed in the early 1990s. [25][26]
7= Two Commerce Square 565 / 172 41 1987 [27][26]
9 Philadelphia City Hall 548 / 167 9 1901 Tallest building in the United States and the world from 1901 until the completion of the Singer Building in 1908.[7][28]
10 1818 Market Street 500 / 152 40 1974 Tallest building completed in Philadelphia in the 1970s.[29][30]
11 The St. James 498 / 152 45 2004 Tallest all-residential building in the city. Tallest building located east of Broad Street.[31][32]
12 Loews Philadelphia Hotel 492 / 150 36 1932 Known commonly as the PSFS Building.[33] Tallest hotel in the city. With its antenna included, the building reaches a total height of 750 feet (229 m), making it the 5th-tallest building in the city when measuring to pinnacle height.[34][35][36]
13 PNC Bank Building 491 / 150 40 1983 [37][38]
14= Centre Square II 490 / 149 40 1973 [39][40]
14= Five Penn Center 490 / 149 36 1970 [41][42]
16 Murano* 475 / 145 42 2008 Under Construction - this building was topped out October 2007.[43][44]
17 One South Broad 472 / 144 28 1932 Formerly known as the PNB Building.[45][46]
18= 2000 Market Street 435 / 133 29 1973 [47][48]
18= Two Logan Square 435 / 133 35 1987 [49][50]
20 Cira Centre 434 / 133 28 2005 Tallest building in Philadelphia located outside of Center City.[51][52]
21 1700 Market 430 / 131 32 1968 Tallest building completed in the 1960s.[53][54]
22 1835 Market Street 425 / 130 29 1986 Name was changed from Eleven Penn Center in 2003.[55][56]
23 Centre Square I 417 / 127 32 1973 [57][58]
24 Aramark Tower 412 / 126 32 1984 Formerly known as One Reading Center.[59][60]
25 Wachovia Building 405 / 123 29 1927 [61][62]
26 One Logan Square 400 / 122 31 1983 [63][64]

* Indicates still under construction, but has been topped out.

Tallest Under Construction, Approved and Proposed

This article or section contains information about expected future buildings or structures.
Some or all of this information may be speculative, and the content may change as building construction begins.


This lists buildings that are under construction, approved, or proposed in Philadelphia that are at least 400 feet (122 meters) in height. Under construction buildings that have already been topped out are also included. The rank that each building would hold if it were completed is listed. However, its rank is not dependent on any other buildings that are not currently completed or topped off.

Name/ Height* (feet / m)/ Floors*/ Year (est.)/ Status/ Notes

American Commerce Center 1,500 / 457 63 2012 Proposed Would become the tallest building in Philadelphia and the 3rd-tallest in the United States upon completion.[65][66]
Comcast Center 975 / 297 57 2008 Under construction The building was topped off in June 2007, becoming the tallest building in the city and the state.[10][1]
Bridgman's View Tower 749 / 228 70 2010 Proposed Construction is slated to begin in late 2007. Upon completion, it would become the 5th-tallest building in the city.[67]
Cira Centre South Office Tower 40 2012 Approved Height figures have not yet been released.[68][69][70]
Old City Harbor Tower II 636 / 194 37 2010 Proposed Would stand as the 6th-tallest building in the city upon completion. Planned to be the same height as Old City Harbor Tower III.[71][72]
Old City Harbor Tower III 636 / 194 37 2010 Proposed Would stand as the 6th-tallest building in the city upon completion. Planned to be the same height as Old City Harbor Tower II.[73]
Mandeville Place 607 / 185 41 2008 Proposed Would stand as the 7th-tallest building and the tallest all-residential building in the city upon completion.[74][75]
1441 Chestnut 585 / 178 48 2009 Approved Would stand as the 7th-tallest building in the city upon completion.[76][77]
Trump Tower Philadelphia 528 / 161 45 2008 Proposed Would stand as the 10th-tallest building in the city upon completion.[78][79]
Residences at the Ritz-Carlton 518 / 158 44 2008 Under construction Would stand as the 10th-tallest building in the city upon completion.[80][81]
The Murano 475 / 145 42 2008 Under construction This building was topped off in October 2007, becoming the 16th-tallest building in the city.[43][44]
Old City Harbor Tower I 435 / 132 42 2010 Proposed Would stand as the 20th-tallest building in the city upon completion.[82]
The Horizon 409 / 125 37 2009 Approved Would stand as the 24th-tallest building in the city upon completion.[83][84]
Parkway22 Tower I 407 / 124 35 2009 Approved Would stand as the 24th-tallest building in the city upon completion.[85][86]

* Table entry without text indicates that information regarding a building's height has not yet been released.

Timeline of Tallest Buildings

Due to the 'gentleman's agreement' not to build higher than the tip of the statue of William Penn that rests atop the City Hall,[5] Philadelphia has seen very few city record holders compared to other cities with comparably large skylines. The City Hall stood as the tallest structure in the city for 86 years, and was also a world record holder for tallest habitable building in the world from 1901 until the 1908 completion of the Singer Building in New York City.

Name/ Street/ Address/ Years as Tallest/ Height (feet / m)/ Floors/ References

Christ Church 20 North American Street 1754-1901 196 / 60 [4][87]
Philadelphia City Hall Broad & Market Street 1901-1987 548 / 167 9 [7][88]
One Liberty Place 1650 Market Street 1987-2007 945 / 288 61 [3][89]
Comcast Center 1701 John F. Kennedy Boulevard 2007-present 975 / 297 57 [1][10]

Notes

A. ^ New York has 205 existing and under construction buildings over 500 feet (152 m), Chicago has 104, Miami has 37, Houston has 29, Los Angeles has 22, Dallas has 19, Atlanta has 19, San Francisco has 18, Boston has 16, Las Vegas has 15, Seattle has 13, Philadelphia has 11. Source of Skyline ranking information: SkyscraperPage.com.

References

General
Emporis.com - Philadelphia
Specific
^ a b c d Comcast Center. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
^ Cynwyd, Bala. L.F. Driscoll Co. tops out Comcast Center. L.F. Driscoll. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ a b c One Liberty Place. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
^ a b Christ Church. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
^ a b c City Hall. PhillySkyline.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
^ City Hall. GalenFrysinger.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
^ a b c Philadelphia City Hall. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
^ Cooperman, Emily T.. Philly's 50 tallest buildings. phillyskyline.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
^ One Meridian Plaza. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ a b c Comcast Center. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-12.
^ One Liberty Place. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ One Liberty Place. Structurae.de. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Two Liberty Place. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Two Liberty Place. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Two Liberty Place. Structurae.de. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Mellon Bank Center. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Mellon Bank Center. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Mellon Building. Structurae.de. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Bell Atlantic Tower. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Bell Atlantic Tower. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Verizon Tower. Structurae.de. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ G. Fred DiBona, Jr. Building. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ G. Fred DiBona, Jr. Building. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Independence Blue Cross Tower. Structurae.de. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ One Commerce Square. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ a b Commerce Square. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Two Commerce Square. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Philadelphia City Hall. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ 1818 Market Street. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ 1818 Market Street. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ The St. James. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ The Saint James. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Dupré, Judith (1996). Skyscrapers. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, Inc., page 41. ISBN 1-884822-45-2.
^ Loews Philadelphia Hotel. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Loews Philadelphia Hotel. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ PSFS Building. Structurae.de. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ PNC Bank Building. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ PNC Bank Center. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Centre Square II. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Centre Square II. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Five Penn Center. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Five Penn Center. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ a b The Murano. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
^ a b The Murano. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ One South Broad. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ One South Broad. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ 2000 Market Street. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ 2000 Market Street. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Two Logan Square. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ 2 Logan Square. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Cira Center. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Cira Center. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ 1700 Market. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ 1700 Market. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ 1835 Market Street. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
^ 1835 Market Street. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Centre Square I. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Centre Square I. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Aramark Tower. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Aramark Tower. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Wachovia Building. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Wachovia Building. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ One Logan Square. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ 1 Logan Square. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ American Commerce Center. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
^ American Commerce Center. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-14.
^ Bridgman's View Tower. Skyscraperpage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
^ Cira Centre South Office Tower. emporis.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-17.
^ Cira Centre South. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
^ Shields, Jeff. Cira Centre South project gets Council panel's OK. Philly.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
^ Old City Harbor Tower II. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
^ Old City Harbor Tower III. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
^ Old City Harbor Tower III. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Mandeville Place. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
^ Mandeville Place. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ 1441 Chestnut. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
^ 1441 Chestnut. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Trump Tower Philadelphia. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
^ Trump Tower Philadelphia. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Residences at the Ritz-Carlton. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Residences at the Ritz-Carlton, Philadelphia. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Old City Harbor Tower (Residential). Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ The Horizon. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
^ The Horizon. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Parkway22 Tower I. Emporis.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
^ Parkway22 Tower I. SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
^ Avery, Ron (1999). A Concise History of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Otis Books, page 27. ISBN 0-9658825-1-9.
^ City Hall. A View On Cities. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
^ Terranova, Antonino (2003). Skyscrapers. Vercelli, Italy: White Star S.r.l., pages 153 - 154. ISBN 0-7607-4733-4.

Source of Article:

Wikipedia. (2008). List of Tallest Buildings in Philadelphia. Retrieved May 31, 2008 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_buildings_in_Philadelphia

External Links

Here you can find various external links about Philadelphia Architecture! To view their website, just click on the link.

PhillySkyline.com

Philadelphia Historic Photographs Diagram of Philadelphia Skyscrapers on SkyscraperPage Emporis.com page on Philadelphia Philadelphia Architects and Buildings

 

 
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